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This is a summary of the discussion which took place during the 2010 open session of the Cigré Study Group A2: power transformers. The scope of SC A2 covers all kinds of power transformers, including industrial, DC converter transformers and reactors and transformer components, and activities are related to design and manufacture, application of materials, utilisation, safety and environmental aspects, economic/commercial aspects and quality assurance and testing… (more)


A powerful question: direct cycle or indirect cycle? In a jet engine, fuel is burned to heat air that has already been compressed by spinning blades. As the heated air expands, it races out of a nozzle at the back of the engine, providing the thrust to push the aircraft forwards quickly enough for it to get airborne and stay airborne. Some of this thrust spins a turbine and is used to drive the compressor. This is a considerable oversimplification, but it outlines the basic principle… (more)

Safe and reliable supply of electric power is aprerequisite for continuation and growth of prosperity in any country. As shown in the past there are circumstances which require a substantial adaptation of the power systems to new conditions. For example, changes in the political conditions in Europe at the end of the 1980s have resulted in a massive restructuring of the power systems in Central and Eastern Europe. In addition, the liberalization of the power industry, which started globally in the nineties of the last century, caused substantial changes to the power systems because of new reference conditions, in particular by intensifying electric power trading… (more)

Apollo is the inverter end of the Cahora Bassa HVDC scheme. It is situated in RSA while the rectifier is at the Songo Station 1414 km to the North in Mozambique. The present rating of the HVDC link is 1920 MW at ±533 kV. In 2006 Eskom placed a contract with ABB for the replacement of eight six-pulse converters and two AC filters, while retaining the old transformers and the DC yard equipment including smoothing reactors. A basic requirement was that renewed equipment should not become obsolete as the Cahora Bassa HVDC link has the potential to be uprated to 3960 MW using the present full current rating of the line and extending the voltage to ± 600 kV DC… (more)

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