You are currently browsing the tag archive for the ‘protection’ tag.

The direct field current supplied by the excitation system excites the field winding to establish the rotor flux and the internal voltage in a synchronous generator. When a generator loses its excitation, the rotor current decreases gradually and the field voltage slowly decays as dictated by the field time constant. As a final outcome, the generator starts to consume reactive power from the power system instead of supplying it… (more)


A unique approach to LV switchgear protection and the process of transitioning this concept to a real-world application. In low-voltage (LV) power systems (600 V and below), a network of communicating devices can provide supervisory control functions, gather substation electrical data and report event status to a central control computer… (more)

Palmiet Pumped Storage Power Station is due for an upgrade that includes the control and instrumentation system, electrical protection system, excitation system and accelerating system. The acceleration system is a variable frequency converter (SFC) that is shared between two units. Three acceleration configurations are possible… (more)

Businesses of today depend on data. It is the heart and soul of the modern enterprise, and the risk of losing this data is a daily threat that can have dire consequences. The increasing pace of business as well as a growing trend towards mobility means that this data also needs to be shared, while it is being protected to prevent data loss… (more)

OPC, originally called OLE for process control, is used extensively in control systems to provide interoperability between devices and software from different vendors. While the latest version of OPC (OPC UA) has included security requirements in its design, the OPC “Classic” protocols (OPC DA, OPC HDA, and OPC A&E) are based on the Microsoft DCOM protocols which were designed before network security issues were widely understood… (more)

The lightning flash density charts supplied by the South African Weather Services show that the frequency of lightning over South Africais increasing… (more)

 Surveyors and GIS professionals are often heard asking the question: “Does my work enjoy copyright protection, and if so, do I own the copyright?” Copyright has important implications for these professional persons. It determines whether the work that is produced by such persons enjoys protection; it determines who owns such copyright; and it determines whether and how such rights can be enforced against a person who copies such work without the necessary consent… (more)

Cigré stands for “International council on large electric systems”. It is a body of experts whose primary focus is the dissemination of information for the good of the electrical power transmission industry. The issues facing Cigré are, due to the nature of its activities, issues facing the power transmission and distribution industry as a whole. This editorial hopes to summarise some of these issues… (more)

Sophisticated and highly susceptible microprocessor based electronics and data communication networks are integrated across every sector of today’s fast paced business world. Preserving these mission-critical systems from the damages of surges, spikes, and transients ensures that these systems are protected from equipment destruction, disruption in service, and from costly downtime… (more)

According to the North American Electric Reliability Council in 74% of cases the reason for heavy failures in power systems was the incorrect operation of relay protection in trying to avoid the failure. Thus the reliability of a power system depends on the reliability of relay protection in many respects… (more)

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