Protection, automation and control (PAC) systems for electrical networks are getting smarter. Advanced communication interfaces and the ever increasing need for information exchange between devices are certainly shifting well-entrenched paradigms. Paradigm shifts create exciting opportunities but also pose significant threats to those not ready to make the necessary adjustments. Communication protocols such as IEC 61850 over Ethernet networks are now being used for real-time protection, automation and control applications and are fast replacing hard-wired interfaces in the substation environment… (more)

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