Quality of supply (QoS) in electrical energy is important for the sustainability of a local utility. The annual budget has to be based on a realistic assumption that retailing electrical energy will realise a projected profit. Sewerage, water and others are services rendered by local utilities operating within budgets subsidised from the profit made by selling electrical energy. But selling electrical energy is in itself not sustainable if the quality does not empower the user to generate profit… (more)

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